C# OOPS Concepts

Object oriented programming (OOP) is a programming structure where programs are organized around objects as opposed to action and logic. This is essentially a design philosophy that uses a different set of programming languages such as C#. Understanding OOP concepts can help make decisions about how you should design an application and what language to use.

Everything in OOP is placed together as self-sustainable “objects.” An object is a combination of variables, functions, and data that performs a set of related activities. When the object performs those activities, it defines the object’s behavior. In addition, an object is an instance of a class. Furthermore, C# offers full support for OOP including inheritance, encapsulation, abstraction, and polymorphism:

  • Encapsulation is when a group of related methods, properties, and other members are treated as a single object.
  • Inheritance is the ability to receive (“inherit”) methods and properties from an existing class.
  • Polymorphism is when each class implements the same methods in varying ways, but you can still have several classes that can be utilized interchangeably.
  • Abstraction is the process by which a developer hides everything other than the relevant data about an object in order to simplify and increase efficiency.

We’ll discuss each of these concepts in more detail in this post.

What is an Object?

Objects are instances of classes. In other words, an instance of a class is an object defined by that particular class. Creating a new instance, or an object, is called instantiation. This is how you define a class:


class SampleClass



A light version of classes in C# is called structures. These are beneficial when you want to create a large array of objects but don’t want to overwhelm your available memory. A class is made up of three things:

  • A name
  • Operations
  • Attributes

Objects are created from a class blueprint, which defines the data and behavior of all instances of that type.

public class Student



Here’s another example:

Class Example


/* fields,






Here’s an example of an object:

Example exmplObject = new Example();

In memory, you can create an object using the “new” keyword. In C#, value types refer to other data type variables while objects are reference types. Moreover, other value types are stored in the stack while objects are stored in the heap.

Keep in mind that everything in C# is a class. An object is a section of memory that has been configured according to the class blueprint. Every instance, or object, of a particular class has access to several methods and properties of that class.

Data Abstraction

This provides essential features without describing any background details. Abstraction is important because it can hide unnecessary details from reference objects to names. It is also necessary for the construction of programs. Instead of showing how an object is represented or how it works, it focuses on what an object does. Therefore, data abstraction is often used for managing large and complex programs.

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